Contact Us
  • 201, Priyanka Tower, Basai   Darapur, industrial Estate, Najafgarh Road
    New Delhi - 110015


      Phone: 011-65946882, 25109757
      Mobile: +91-9811643162, 9868810577
      E-mail: matrixeco@gmail.com
      E-mail: info@matrixeco.com
      Website:www.matrixeco.com







Effects Of Fluoride & Arsenic And Removal Techniques

1 - Fluoride & its Effects

Fluoride is essential for human being as it helps in normal mineralization of bones and formation of dental enamel.  It adversely affects the health of human being when their concentration exceeds the limit of 1.5 mg/l.  About 96% of the fluoride in the body is found in bone and teeth. Fluoride is a double-edged sword. Ingestion of large amount of fluoride is as harmful as ingestion of its inadequate amount.

Inadequate quantities fluoride causes health problems especially in children. In cold countries like USA, UK etc. problems are related to inadequate consumption of fluoride. In these countries, fluoride is added to water to prevent health hazards. There are areas where dental problems have reduced progressively by adding fluoride in water. Due to inadequacy of fluoride, children suffer from:

.

Dental caries

.

Lack of formation of dental enamel

.

Lack of normal mineralization of bones.

.

All or a combination of the above 

Fluoride poisoning and the biological response leading to ill effects depend on the following factors:

.

Excess concentration of fluoride in drinking water.

.

Low Calcium and high alkalinity in drinking water.

.

Total daily intake of fluoride

.

Duration of exposure to fluoride

.

Age of the individual groups as, fluoride crosses the placenta because there is no barrier and it also enters maternal milk.

.

Derangement in hormonal profile either as a result of fluoride poisoning or as Expectant mothers and lactating mothers are the most vulnerable

.

Total daily intake of fluoride

.

Duration of exposure to fluoride

a cause, aggravate the disease. Important hormones for healthy bone
formation and bone function are clacitonin, parathormone, vitamin - D

Fluorosis, a disease caused by excess intake of fluoride, is a slow progressive, crippling malady. The tissues affected by fluoride are; and cortisone.

.

Dental

.

Skeletal

.

Non Skeletal

Different fluoride doses (long term ingestion through water) and their  effects on human body are given below:

Fluoride  (mg/l)

Effects on human body

Below 0.5

Dental caries

0.5 to 1.0

Protection against dental caries. Takes care of bone and teeth

1.5 to 3.0

Dental fluorosis

3 to 10

Skeletal fluorosis (adverse changes in bone structure)

10 or more

Crippling skeletal fluorosis and severe osteoclerosis

2 - De- fluorination

Several methods have been suggested for removing excessive fluorides in drinking water. These may be broadly divided into two types.

Those based upon exchange process or adsorption

 Those based upon addition of chemicals during treatment.

The material used in contact beds includes processed bone, natural or synthetic tri calcium phosphate, hydroxy apatite magnesia, activated alumina, activated carbon and ion exchanger.

Chemical treatment methods include the use of lime either alone or with magnesium and aluminium salts again either alone or in combination with coagulant aid. Other methods include addition to fluoride water of material like Magnesia, calcium phospate, bentonite and fuller’s earth, mixing and their separation from water by settling and filtration.

 

2.1 - Nalgonda Technique

The Nalgonda Technique involves the addition of two simple readily available chemicals Lime and Alum, followed by flocculation, sedimentation & filtration in sequence. These operations are simple and familiar to the engineers.